1900 - PRESENT
|Important Dates in regard to the development of examinations.||The detail.|
|1900||Board of Education established –replacing the Education Department and the Department of Science and Art. CGLI offered examinations in Building Quantities.|
|1901||CGLI Technological examinations held in 380 centres with 34,246 candidates and there were 904 candidates in manual training examinations for teachers.|
|1902||Balfour Education Act. Provided for the creation of a system of state secondary school. Little attention on examination system preferred to maintain the status quo with the universities playing a central role. University of London Examining Board founded.|
Board of Education creates three branches for: Elementary Education, Secondary Education and Technological and HE in Science and Art. Northern Universities Joint Matriculation Board (JMB) founded comprising the Universities of Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds and Sheffield. University of London Junior School Certificated introduced. WEA founded.
|1904||'Regulations for Evening Schools, Technical Institutions and School of Art and Art Classes.' Cd.2172. BoE. Secondary Regulations introduced a subject-based curriculum.|
|1905||Army Leaving Certificate introduced. University of London Higher School Leaving Certificate introduced.|
|1907||'Regulations for Technical Schools, Schools of Art and other Schools and classes for FE.' Cd 3555. BoE|
|1908||Society of Arts received its royal charter.|
|1911||'Report of the Consultative on Examinations in Secondary Schools.' Cd. 6004. Dyke Ackland Report. BoE.
East Midland Educational Union founded. Covering Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire and Rutland. 'Science Examinations and Grouped Course Certificates.' Circ 776. (20th June) BoE. 'Examinations in Secondary Schools.' Cd 6004. BoE.Coal Mines Act advocated higher qualifications for mining engineers.
|1912||2,558 candidates took the Higher Examinations in Science and 9,182 the Lower Examinations in Science|
|1913||Institute of Mechanical Engineers introduce examinations. Institution of Electrical Engineers introduce examinations.Board of Education (ED) Regulations for new category of Junior Technical Schools (JTS).|
|1914||'Examinations in Secondary Schools.' Circ 849. BoE|
|1915||'The Examination of Secondary Schools.' Circ 933. BoE.|
|1916||Institute of Brewing proposed introducing examinations postponed until 1920.|
|1917||'Scheme for the Better Organisation of Examinations in Secondary Schools.' Circ. 1002. BoE. 'Examination of Secondary Schools.' Circ 996. BoE. Secondary School Examinations Council (SSEC) established (SSEC) to oversee School Certificate examinations.|
|1918||'Examinations in Science and Technology.' Circ 1026. BoE. National standards for examinations established School Certicate and Higher School Certificate created. Eight approved School and Higher School Certificate Examination were those of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate, Oxford Delegency for Local Examinations, Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board, University of London, Norther Universities Joint Matriculation Board, University of Durham, University of Bristol and the Central Welsh Board.|
|1920||Joint Committees in National Schemes established. Ordinary and Higher Certificates and Diplomas administrated by joint committee.
Northern Counties Technical Examinations Council replaced the Northern Union of Mechanics Institutes.
|1921||National Certificate (Nat Cert) scheme introduced see following years the subjects that were introduced (This scheme was for 5 years of part-time study). The driving force behind this development was H. S. Hele-Shaw) National Certicates in Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry started. Pitman Commercial Examination Department established at the Phonetic Institute.|
|1922||Nat Cert in Electrical Engineering introduced. Royal Aeronautical Society introduce examinations.|
|1923||'Differentiation of the Curriculum for Boys and Girls in Secondary Schools' Consultative Committe BoE HMSO.|
|1924||Northern Counties Technical Examinations Council was reconstituted. Covering Cumberland, Durham, Northumberland, Westmoreland and Redcar (North Riding of Yorkshire).|
|1926||Nat Cert in Naval Architecture introduced. Institution of Gas Engineers introduce examinations. Closure of Finsbury Technical College.|
|1928||Board of Education Committee (Atholl Report). 'Examinations for part-time students.' BoE.|
|1929||Nat Cert in Building introduced.|
|1931||The School Certificate Examination. BoE/SSEC.|
|1934||Nat Cert in Textiles introduced.|
|1935/36||National Certificate in Commerce introduced. In 1939 the Association of British Chambers of Commerce took over the function of the professional institute of the examinations. Institute of Marine Engineers introduce examinations (1935).|
|1936||'Secondary School Examinations.' Circ 1448. BoE.|
|1937||International Institute Examination Enquiry. 'A Conspectus of Examinations in GB and NI. P.' Hartog and G. Roberts. 'The Investigators' School Certificate Report.' A very detailed analysis of the examinations. BoE.|
|1938||Report of the Consultative Committee on Secondary Education, with Special Reference to Grammar Schools and Technical High Schools. Spens Report. BoE.|
|1939||Nat Cert in Commerce introduced.|
|1941||Nat Cert in Production Engineering introduced.|
|1943||'Curriculum and Examinations in Secondary Schools. Norwood Report.' endorsed the triparite system following recommendation of the Spens Report 1938. BoE. Nat Cert in Civil Engineering introduced.|
|1945||Higher Technological Education. Percy Report. MoE. Nat Cert in Applied Physics introduced. Nat Cert in Metallurgy introduced. Advisory Committee on Education (Scotland) recommended a comprehensive system for all secondary pupils 12-16 with a common core curriculum amd leaving examination.|
|1946||Youths’ opportunities, FE in County Colleges. MoE pamphlet No.3.|
|1947||Northern Advisory Council for FE established.
School leaving age raised to 15. Nat Cert in Applied Chemistry introduced. Institution of Mining introduce examinations.
|1948||'Examinations in Secondary Schools.' Circ 168. (23rd April) MoE/SSEC.|
|1949||CGLI Memorandum on the Origin, Development and Work of the Institute. CGLI. Scheme for Scottish Leaving Certicate accepted. 'Examinations in Secondary Schools.' Circ 205. MoE|
|1950||'Professional Bodies’ Requirements in Terms of the GCE.' Circ 227. MoE. UGC Policy Statement on Applied Science. UGC.|
|1951||The School Certificate and Higher School Certificate replaced by GCE ‘O’ and ‘A’ levels. These were offered by: University of Cambridge Local Examinaions Syndicate (UCLES). Joint Matriculation Board (JMB). University of London School Examinations Board (LSEB). Northern Ireland Schools Examination Council - not based in a university. University of Oxford Delgacy Examinations (ODLE). Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examinaion Board (OCSEB). Southern Universites' Joint Board for Schools Examinations (SUJBSE). WEelsh Joint Education Committee (WJEC).
Joint Standing Committee to advice on technical and commercial GCEs. Nat Cert in Chemical Engineering introduced.
|1952||Welsh Joint Education Committee assumed examinations to its other functions. Nat Cert in Mining introduced. 'Examinations in Secondary School' Circ 256 MoE (Sept).|
|1953||Associated Examining Board (AEB) established by CGLI.|
|1954||'Technical and Commercial Subjects in the GCE.' JMB.|
|1955||Council of Technical Examining Bodies established. National Council of Technological Awards established- Diplomas in Technology Dip Tech) and College of Technologists scheme followed. 'Examinations in Secondary Schools.' Circ 289. MoE.|
|1956||'Technical Education.' Cmd. 9703. MoE.|
|1958||'Awards at Universities and other Institutions of FE.' Circ.339. MoE. Beloe Committee appointed to look at other than GCE Examinations CSE introduced in 1965.|
|1959||15 to 18. Crowther Report.MoE. 'Report on the Wastage of Students from P-T Technical and Commercial Courses.' MoE/ NACEIC. 'National Council for Technological Awards List 10.' NCTA.|
|1960||'Secondary School Examinations Other than the GCE.' MoE/SSEC. Beloe Report.|
|1961||National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design established.ONC/OND/HNC in Business Studies introduced. Institution of Scottish Examination Board created. 'Better Opportunities in Technical Education.' Cmnd 1254. MoE. Secondary School Examinations other than the GCE. College of Preceptors. Scottish Council for Commercial Education (SCCE) founded. 'Examinations than the GCE.' College of Preceptors. 'Secondary School Certificate Regulations and Syllabuses.' Union of Educational Institutions and in same year the equivalent document from the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes.|
|1962||Scottish Association for National Certificates and Diplomas (SANCAD established to oversee National schemes for Scotland. Curriculum Study Group established in the MoE.
Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) introduced. 'Professional Bodies Reqirements in Terms of GCE.' Circ 5/62. MoE. 'Awards for First Degree and Comparable Courses. The University and Other Awards Regulations.' Circ 9/62. MoE. Yorkshire Council for FE assumed examinations to its other functions except for the Redcar region. Curriculum Study Group established with the MoE. Higher Grade Qualifications(Scotland) introduced.
|1963||The Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board established. 'Certificate and Senior Certificate Examinations.' Report by examiners. College of Preceptors. 'Regulations for the ACP and LCP Examinations from 1963 onwards.' College of Preceptors. 'Secondary School Certificate Regulations and Syllabuses.' East Midland Educational Union and in same year the equivalent document from the Northern Countries Technical Examinations Council.. 'JMB. What it is and what it does' Petch. J. A. JMB. Certificate in Office Studies (COS) introduced.|
|1964||National Examinations Board in Supervisory Studies established- later called NEBS Management. Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) established abolished in 1992.
Schools Council for Curriculum and Examinations (SCCE) established followed recommendations by the Lockwood Report.. MoE replaced by the DES. University of Durham School Examination Board dissolved. HND in Business Studies introduced.
|1965||Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) introduced following the Beloe Report. A number of Regional examining boards were established namely:Associated Lancashire Schools Board. East Anglian Examinations Board. East Midlands Regional Examination Board. Metropolitan regional Examination Board. Middlesex Regional Examination Board. Northern Regional Examination Board. North West Regional Examination Board. South East (Regional) Examinations Board. Southern Regional Exams Board. West Midlands Regional Examination Board. West Yorkshire and Lindsey Regional Examinations Board.Yorkshire and Humberside Regional Examinations Board. Later the Yorkshire Boards merged to create the Yorkshire Regional Examinations Board and the Metropolitan and Middlesex Boards merged to create the London Regional Examinations Board. CSEs replaced by CGSEs in 1986/87. First CNAA degrees in Business Studies introduced.|
|1968||CGLI set up a Skills Testing Service as a result of the Industrial Training Act that provided practical tests for training outside the traditional FE system. Dainton Report. DES. HMSO. London- advocated a broader 'A' level qualification to attract more people into science.|
|1969||Haslegrave Report of Technician Courses and Examinations. Examinations Techniques Development Unit (ETDU) established at CGLI.|
|1971||The London Chamber of Commerce changed its name to the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Examinations Board.|
|1972||School leaving age raised to 16.TOPs introduced.|
|1973||The Technician Education Council (TEC) created. Schools Council attempted to introduce N (Normal) and F (Further) level examinations - failed.|
|1974||The MSC established. The Business Education Council (BEC) created. Assessment of Performance Unit established by DES to promote the development of methods of assessing and monitoring the achievement of pupils. 'Vocational Courses in Art and Design' (Gann Report) DES HMSO.|
ULCI merged with NWRAC. 'School Examinations and their Function.' UCLES publication.
1978 Youth Opportunities Programme (YOP) introduced - two main approaches work experience and work preparation.
|1979||Ferryside agreement which regulated relations between CGLI and the REBs and the RACs which were not REBs. Mansell Report 'A Basis for Choice' published. School Examinations (Waddell Report) recommended a single examination at 16 to replace GCE 'O' levels and the CSE - the GCSE introduced in 1986. LEA Arrangement for the School Curriculum-LEAs had to publish curriculum policies. 'Proposals for the Certificate of Extended Education (CEE)' Cmnd 7755 (Keohane Report) DES.|
|1980||'16-19' (Macfarlane Report) DES/LEAs. DATEC established (The Art and Design element of TEC and BEC).|
|1981||Northern Advisory Council for FE merged with the Northern Counties Technical Examinations Council to become the Northern Council for FE. 'A Basis for Choice (ABC) in Action' A report by CGLI/BTEC/RSA/FEU on pilots of ABC 1979-1981 FEU London.|
|1982||Cockcroft Report into mathematics. 'New Technical Education nitiative (TVEI)' Press Release DES. 'TVEI' announced - MSC. 'Mapping and Reviewing the Pattern of 16-19 Education' Schools Pamphlet No. 20.|
|1983||Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education (CPVE) introduced.
Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI) pilots introduced. YTS introduced. '16-18s in Scotland: An Action Plan.' SED. Edinburgh. '17+ A New Qualification' DES HMSO.
|1984||BTEC created by the merger of TEC and BEC.
Secondary Examinations Council (SEC) and School Curriculum Development Committee (SCDC) replaced by the Schools Council. 'TVEI Review' MSC.'The NVQ Criteria and Related Guidance' NCVQ London
|1985||Pitman Examinations Institute sold to Longman Group. 'CPVE in Action' FEU London. 'Academic Validation in Public Sector HE' (Lindop Report) DES HMSO. 'TVEI Review' MSC.|
|1986||Review of vocational qualifications and the establishment of the National Council for Vocational Qualifications NCVQ). Introduced a competency-based, outcome-measured national infrastructure -had profound effects on education and training providers. NCVQ mergered with SCAA to form QCA in 1997. JTS and Restart for adults began. GCSE introduced. YTS extended to 2 years.|
|1986/87||‘O’ levels and CSEs replaced by GCSEs – first awarded in 1988.l|
|1987||Advanced Supplementary (AS) levels introduced. Open College founded. The National Qualifications Framework.' NCQV. London. The NCVQ Framework created . (March) NCVQ.'Progession from CPVE' FEU London.|
|1988||'Advancing A-levels.' Higginson Report. DES. HMSO. London. The Management Charter Initiative (MCI) launched. National Curriculum (NC) started. National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examination and Assessment Council (SEAC) replaced School Curriculum Development Committee (SCDC) and Secondary Examinations Council (SEC). AQA established AEB+SEG+NEAB.
NWRAC/ULCI became CENTRA (the FE Centre for the Regional Association of LEAs). NVQS and SVQs introduced. Career Development Loans (CDLs) introduced.Education Reform Act-introduced National Curriculum and testing regimes. 'The National Certificate: A Guide to Assessment' SCOTVEC. 'Introducing a National System of Credit Accumulation' NCVQ London.
|1989||Training in Britain. TA/DE. 'Generic Units and Common Learning Outcomes' (une) NCVQ. 'Vocational Qualifications: Criteria and Procedures' NCVQ.|
|1990||CGLI purchase Pitman Examinations Institute (PEI). Training Credits introduced. British Baccalaureat published IPPR - went no where! Government lifts restriction on schools offering BTEC courses. Core skills first proposed for GCE 'A' levels - failed. 'Core Skills 16-19' National Curriculum Council (NCC).Howie Committee appointed to review extension of the Scottish Highers qualifications e.g. S5 and S6. S. O. Edinburgh.'Common Learning Outcomes:Core Skills in A/AS levels and NVQs' NCVQ.|
The CPVE replaced by the Diploma of Vocational Education (DVE). Youth Training replaced by Modern Apprenticeships and then phased out in 2002. SATs piloted in primary schools. 'A Survey of the International Baccalaureat'. DES. 'Access and opportunity' Cmnd 1530. SED. Edinburgh. HMSO. 'Beyond GCSE'. Royal Society. London. Ordinary and Advanced Diplomas (Consultation Document) published. DES. London.'General Scottish Vocational Qualification' A consultation paper SCOTVEC. 'Ordinary and Advanced Diplomas' Consultation Document DES.
|1992||'Upper Secondary Education in Scotland' (Howie Report) SOED Edinburgh HMSO. 'Beyond GCSE' Royal Society.|
|1993||GNVQs launched nationally. School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA) replaced National Curriculum Council and School Examinations and Assessment Council. Dearing Report ' The National Curriculum and its Assessment.' Modern Apprenticeships announced - began in 1994 in 14 occupational sectors later extended to cover over 50 sectors.|
|1994||CENTRA assumed responsibility for North West LEAs. GNVQ in FE Sector in England.' National Survey Report by FEFC. 'Higher Still' announced a new unified system in Scotland to embrace all 16+ provision except SVQs and other workbased qualifications, SO. Edinburgh. Modern Apprenticeships introduced.|
|1995||DfEE created. Review of 100 NVQs and SVQS.' Beaumont Report. DfEE. 'Assessment Review.' Capey Report. NVVQ. London. University of Oxford Delegacy of Local Examinations abolished. 'An Interim Report on the Wales FE Credit Framework.' Fforwm Wales Modularistion and Credit Based development Project. Fforwm. Cardiff. 'GNVQ Quality Framework.' NCVQ/BTEC/CGLI/RSA. NCVQ. London|
|1996||'Review of Qualiifications for 16-19 Year Olds.' Dearing Report. SCAA, Edexcel created following the merger of BTEC with the London Examinations Board – BTEC + ULEAC. ‘Review of 100 NVQs and SVQs’ (Beaumont Report). ‘Review of GNVQ Assessment’( Capey Report). Modern Apprenticeships introduced.Dearing Report Review of Vocational Quaifications for 16-19 year olds.'|
|1997||Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) created following the merger of NCVQ and SCAA a massively powerful quango. Oxford, Cambridge and RSA (OCR) established. AQA created from merger of AEB and NEAB - CGLI involved with GNVQ programmes but remained independent for all other qualifiactions. QAA for HE founded replaced HEQC.National Traineeships introduced to replace Youth Training eventually becam Modern Apprenticeships (MAs).|
|1998||College of Preceptors becomes the College of Teachers. OCR established MEG+OCEAC+RSA Examinations Board. New Deal for Yougn People (NDYP) introduced. New Deal for Long-Term Umeployed (NDLTU,ND 25+) introduced.New Deal replaces YTS.National Literacy Strategy (NLS) introduced.|
|1999||Moser Report 'Improving literacy and numeracy; a fresh start.' Review of the national Curriculum QCA/DfEE. National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) introduced.|
|2000||Federation of Awarding Bodies founded. CENTRA along with AOSEC, EMFEC and Learning South West to form the Awarding Body Consortium (ABC).
University for Industry (UfI) became operational. Adult Basic Skills Strategy Unit (ABSSU) founded. Level 2 apprenticeships introduced.
|2001||Prototypes for Foundation Degrees launched. ConneXions service established - advice and information for teenagers.|
|2002||Institute of Leadership and Management created - NEBS Management +ISM. Vocational GCSEs proposed.Advanced Subsidiary examinations (AS) introduced.Foundation degrees launched nationally. GNVQs phased out and replaced by so-called vocational GCSEs and 'A' levels. Jobcentre Plus launched. Technical Certificates introduced in FMAs and AMAs - to provide the underpinning knowledge and understanding required for the relevant NVQ level.|
|2003/4||Technical Certificates introduced to enhance the theoretical content for apprentceships.|
|2004||Mike Tomlinson Report '14-19 Curriculum and Qualifications.' -recommendations rejected by government. National Proficiency Tests Council (NPTC) bcame part of CGLI. Apprenticeshiop frameworks rebranded.|
|2005+||A recent series of reviews and reports e.g. Foster, Leitch along with a number of government initiatives have brought about the development of vocational diplomas, revised apprenticeships and an apparent commitment to skills improvement and vocational education. Hospitality Awarding Body (HAB)( Hospitality and Catering) became part of CGLI.|
|2006||Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification introduced also known as the Welsh Baccalaureate.|
|2007||School leaving age to be raised to 18 possibly in 2013. DCSF created replaced by the Department for Education (DfE/DFE). Functional skills introduced as a 3 year trial.|
|2008||A set of interesting statistics. In 2006/07 - 763,000 vocational qualifications were awarded. In 2005/06 - 619,160, 2004/05- 532,478 and for 2003/04 the figure was 441.957. These were consistently below the targets set by the government and the 2006/07 percentage increase showed a deceleration on previous years. Testing and Assessment/ Report by House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee. Diplomas lauched. CGLI Centre for Skills Development founded.'Draft Apprenticeship Bill' Cm 7452. 'The Diploma:a guide to emplyers' DCSF. National Apprenticeship Service announced.|
|2009||Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act.' Created a statutory framework for apprenticeships. 11+ in Northern Ireland abolished. There were over 180 apprenticeships frameworks in place.|
|2010||Diplomas abolished. QCDA abolished.|